(Assignments 2 & 3) Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2

-Degrees of Comparison

The Degrees of Comparison in English grammar are made with the Adjective and Adverb words to show how big or small, high or low, more or less, many or few, etc., of the qualities, numbers and positions of the nouns (persons, things and places) in comparison to the others mentioned in the other part of a sentence or expression. An Adjective is a word which qualifies (shows how big, small, great, many, few, etc.) a noun or a pronoun is in a sentence. An adjective can be attributive (comes before a noun) or predicative (comes in the predicate part):

e.g.  He is a tall man. (‘tall’ —  adjective – attributive)

This man is tall.  (‘tall’ —  adjective – predicative)

An Adverb is a word which adds to the meaning of the main verb (how it is done, when it is done, etc.) of a sentence or expression.

It normally ends with ‘ly’, but there are some adverbs that are without ‘ly’:

e.g.  She ate her lunch quickly.   He speaks clearly.  They type fast

 

– There are three Degrees of Comparison in English.

They are:

1. Positive degree.

2. Comparative degree.

3. Superlative degree.

Let us see all of them one by one.

1. Positive degree.

When we speak about only one person or thing, We use the Positive degree.

Examples:

• This house is big.

In this sentence only one noun “The house” is talked about.

• He is a tall student.

• This flower is beautiful.

• He is an intelligent boy.

Each sentence mentioned above talks about only one noun.

The second one in the Degrees of Comparison is…

  1. Comparative degree.When we compare two persons or two things with each other,We use both the Positive degree and Comparative degree.Examples:

    a. This house is bigger than that one. (Comparative degree)

    This house is not as big as that one. (Positive degree)

    The term “bigger” is comparative version of the term “big”.

    Both these sentences convey the same meaning.

  2. This flower is more beautiful than that. (Comparative)This flower is not as beautiful as that. (Positive)The term “more beautiful” is comparative version of the term “beautiful”.Both these sentences convey the same meaning.
  3. He is more intelligent than this boy. (Comparative)He is not as intelligent as this boy. (Positive)

The term “more intelligent” is comparative version of the term “intelligent”.

Both these sentences convey the same meaning.

  1. He is taller than Mr. Hulas. (Comparative)He is not as tall as Mr. Hulas. (Positive)

The term “taller” is comparative version of the term “tall”.

Both these sentences convey the same meaning.

3. Superlative degree.
When we compare more than two persons or things with one another,

We use all the three Positive, Comparative and Superlative degrees.

Examples:

  1. This is the biggest house in this street. (Superlative)This house is bigger than any other house in this street. (Comparative)No other house in this street is as big as this one. (Positive)

The term “biggest” is the superlative version of the term “big”.

All the three sentences mean the same meaning.

  1. This flower is the most beautiful one in this garden. (Superlative)This flower is more beautiful than any other flower in this garden. (Comparative)No other flower in this garden is as beautiful as this one. (Comparative)

The term “most beautiful” is the superlative version of the term “beautiful”.

All the three sentences mean the same meaning.

c. He is the most intelligent in this class. (Superlative)

He is more intelligent than other boys in the class. (Comparative)

No other boy is as intelligent as this boy. (Positive)
The term “most intelligent” is superlative version of the term “intelligent”.

Both these sentences convey the same meaning.

  1. He is the tallest student in this class. (Superlative)He is taller than other students in this class. (Comparative)No other student is as tall as this student. (Positive)

The term “tallest” is superlative version of the term “tall”.

  • Question word

An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as whatwhenwherewhowhomwhy, and how. They are sometimes called wh-words, because in English most of them start with wh- (compare Five Ws). They may be used in both direct questions (Where is he going?) and in indirect questions (I wonder where he is going). In English and various other languages the same forms are also used as relative pronouns in certain relative clauses (The country where he was born) and certain adverb clauses  (I go where he goes).

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5 W + 1 H in English Newspaper

If you ever sat through Journalism 101, you know all about the Five Ws and one H. For the rest of you, you may find this concept helpful when preparing interview questions or writing factual news stories. This concept may help you write better news releases too, considering they should contain news.

What are the Five Ws and One H? They are Who, What, Why, When, Whereand How. Why are the Five Ws and One H important? Journalism purists will argue your story isn’t complete until you answer all six questions. It’s hard to argue this point, since missing any of these questions leaves a hole in your story. Even if you’re not reporting on the news of the day, this concept could be useful in many professional writing scenarios.

In case it’s not obvious what information you would be looking to gather from each of the six questions, let’s look at what information you might want to gather with the Five Ws and One H if you were reporting on The Three Little Pigs:

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  • Who was involved? The three little pigs (the first pig, the second pig and the third pig) and The Big Bad Wolf (a.k.a. Wolf).
  • What happened? Each pig constructed a house out of different materials (straw, sticks and bricks). Wolf (allegedly) threatened to blow over their houses and is believed to have destroyed both the straw and stick homes at this time. Pig one and two were able to flee to the brick house, where they remain at the moment. We’re still waiting to hear from local authorities, but it looks like the Wolf may have been injured while attempting to enter the brick house.
  • Where did it take place? Outside a straw house, a stick house and a brick house.
  • When did it take place? At various times throughout the day.
  • Why did it happen? Apparently the Big Bad Wolf was trying to eat the pigs. Several eyewitnesses recall the Wolf taunting the pigs before he destroyed the straw and stick homes by chanting, “Little pigs, little pigs, let me in.” The pigs apparently scoffed at the Wolf’s idle treats, saying “Not by the hair of our chinny, chin chins.” It’s believed this angered the Wolf and led to him blowing the houses down.
  • How did it happen? It would appear the first two homes were not built to withstand the Wolf’s powerful breath. The incident inside the brick house is still being investigated, but early indications suggest the Wolf fell into a boiling pot of water when trying to enter the house through the chimney.

It’s a silly example, but you can see how getting answers to these six questions can really help you get all the information needed to write an accurate report. Next time you are preparing interview questions or outlining a story, consider walking through the Five Ws and One H to see if you left anything out.

Did you read all the way to the end of this post? As a special treat for your dedication, here’s a fantastic Five Ws quote from Rudyard Kipling (courtesy ofFive Ws – Wikipedia):

“I keep six honest serving-men, (They taught me all I knew);
Their names are What and Why and When, And How and Where and Who” –
Rudyard Kipling

–         Active Form

In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.

[Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action]

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–         Passive Form

In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action.

[Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action]

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  • Adjectives clauses

Adjectives clauses have a subject and a verb (or predicate). They will start with a relative pronoun, like: that, who, whom, whose, or which, or a relative adverb, like why, where, or when. Adjective clauses function as an adjective and modify nouns and pronouns. They are also called relative clauses.

Just as the other dependent clauses, the adjective clause does not express a complete thought. It does not need commas separating it from the rest of the sentence if it has essential information in it; that is if you need the information it provides. If it gives additional information, then you use commas. A good way to test for this is to leave out the clause, read the sentence, and see if the meaning of the two sentences is different.

Here are some examples of adjective clauses. The adjective clause is underlined.

  • Chocolate, which many of us adore, is fattening.
  • People who are smartfollow the rules.
  • I can remember the time when there were no computers.
  • Charlie has a friend whose daughter lives in China.
  • Wine that is produced in Tuscanyis not cheap.

– Conditional Sentences

Conditional tenses are used to speculate about what could happen, what might have happened, and what we wish would happen. In English, most sentences using the conditional contain the word if. Many conditional forms in English are used in sentences that include verbs in one of the past tenses. This usage is referred to as “the unreal past” because we use a past tense but we are not actually referring to something that happened in the past. There are five main ways of constructing conditional sentences in English. In all cases, these sentences are made up of an if clause and a main clause. In many negative conditional sentences, there is an equivalent sentence construction using “unless” instead of “if”..

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THE ZERO CONDITIONAL

The zero conditional is used for when the time being referred to is now or always and the situation is real and possible. The zero conditional is often used to refer to general truths. The tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple present. In zero conditional sentences, the word “if” can usually be replaced by the word “when” without changing the meaning.

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TYPE 1 CONDITIONAL

The type 1 conditional is used to refer to the present or future where the situation is real. The type 1 conditional refers to a possible condition and its probable result. In these sentences the if clause is in the simple present, and the main clause is in the simple future.

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TYPE 2 CONDITIONAL

The type 2 conditional is used to refer to a time that is now or any time, and a situation that is unreal. These sentences are not based on fact. The type 2 conditional is used to refer to a hypothetical condition and its probable result. In type 2 conditional sentences, the if clause uses the simple past, and the main clause uses the present conditional.

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TYPE 3 CONDITIONAL

The type 3 conditional is used to refer to a time that is in the past, and a situation that is contrary to reality. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed. The type 3 conditional is used to refer to an unreal past condition and its probable past result. In type 3 conditional sentences, the if clause uses the past perfect, and the main clause uses the perfect conditional.

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Sumber :

http://www.english-for-students.com/Degrees-of-Comparison.html

http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-lesson-wh-questions.php

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interrogative_word

http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/activepassive.htmlhttp://grammar.yourdictionary.com/parts-of-speech/adjectives/adjective-clause.html

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/conditional/

 

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